Im grateful for what Ive learned from the letters to First ThingsÂabout
my exchange with George Weigel on the adventures of the U.S. in Afghanistan.
These letters show that the questions raised in that exchange are lively; for
that we should all be grateful.
To Father Oakes (whose prose is as elegantly over-excited as always): Im
glad he shares my surprise that Mr. Weigel did not respond to my main point.
Id thought that this was because its not easily answerable, but Fr. Oakes
sets me straight by at least attempting an answer. However, not all that he
says makes sense. He asks what it means, in retrospect, that the Allies did
not respect the ius in bello norms in World War II. Well, it means at
least that those who gave the orders for the fire-bombing of German and Japanese
cities acted unjustly, and that those who spoke for and with the Church then
and after should have said so. Elizabeth Anscombe was one who did: she argued,
trenchantly and rightly, that President Truman was a war criminal. Fr. Oakes,
by his own lights, should agree, and I hope he does.
But Fr. Oakes appears to think that the American Catholic populace-at-large
(including, presumably, him and me) is relieved from having opinions or making
judgments about the justness of a particular act of war contemplated by our
country because the classical just war theory permits those judgments only to
statesmen and generals. This is incoherent. It follows directly from such a
position that when two nations with Catholic populations are at (or about to
go to) war, the populations of both are justified in judging their cause correct
(just), because their statesmen and generals do. Perhaps Fr. Oakes will bite
that bullet; I wont.
As for the old accusation, Not to decide is to decide: well, yes, but the
question is, to decide what? Fr. Oakes misconstrues the question I was asking,
for that question I did decide. The question was: Did U.S. Catholics have enough
information at their disposal in September and October of last year to be able
to apply the ius ad bellum criteria? I decided this question negatively,
and Fr. Oakes does not address my arguments about it. Perhaps they were a bit
subtle. Im impressed, I must say, by Fr. Oakes blithe confidence in his ability
to know the answer to counterfactual conditionals such as What would have happened
if the U.S. had responded bellicosely to the embassy bombings of 1998? I have
no such confidence. Perhaps Fr. Oakes has unusually well-developed predictive
And finally to Fr. Oakes, about pacifism, C. S. Lewis, and soldiers. Im pleased
that Fr. Oakes approves of soldierly self-sacrifice and nobility. So do I. But
I prefer these virtues when their exercise doesnt involve killing other people.
Thanks to Mr. Toner, with most of whose letter I fully agree. I didnt, though,
claim to know more than the hierarchy. Rather, I asked them whether they knew
more than I, and the answers Ive had since the piece appeared suggest that
for the most part the answer is no.
To Mr. Chambers: I didnt claim simply that our sources are not wholly reliable;
I claimed that they are very largely unreliable, which makes a difference. And
the jury analogy is relevant, but not in the way he thinks: U.S. juries do not
begin their work from a position of neutrality, but from a presumption of innocence.
Similarly, a Catholic thinking about ius ad bellum begins from a presumption
that a contemplated war is not just”a presumption which Mr. Chambers allows
for the sake of the argument, and from which the conclusion I argued for does
follow. Paragraph 2309 of the Catechism is a difficulty, I admit. To
it I can only repeat what I said above to Fr. Oakes about statesmen and generals.
I ask Mr. Chambers to think (as I continue to do) about the implications of
this paragraph in the Catechism for the latitude we U.S. Catholics should
permit our representatives on questions about the common good. We live, after
all, in a nation in which those who have responsibility for the common good
have made it illegal to restrict the killing of the unborn.
To Mr. Mock and Mr. Belousek: pacifism is a position I revere but dont share,
not, anyway, if it means abjuring all uses of lethal violence as a matter of
principle. Mr. Mock accuses me of sloppy thinking, but doesnt say wherein the
sloppiness lies. Id like to know (really!).
Mr. Guthries question is important. I do think that the means by which information
is disseminated in late-capitalist nations, together with the strong pressures
toward mendacity affecting elected representatives in democracies, mean that
the common man (and thats me) doesnt have and cant get what hed need to
make reasonable decisions in time of contemplated or active war. And this means
that the common Catholic man (and thats me, too) is wrong to throw his support
behind his nation when its contemplating (or has declared) war. This may not
be the situation wed like, but its no good pretending things are otherwise,
George Weigel replies:
Ron Mock suggests that I confuse justice and order in my rendering
of just war theory. Perhaps it would help clarify the point if I noted that,
in my 1987 book Tranquillitas Ordinis , I translated St. Augustines
classic definition of peace as the peace of dynamic and rightly ordered political
community. Which means that justice and freedom are the two crucial components
of order in tranquillitas ordinis . As I hope Ive made plain in my
just war writing over the last fifteen years, there are certain forms of political
order that are not right order and need not be preserved”indeed, conscience
may require that they be resisted, by a variety of means, a point on which Thomas
Jefferson and Lech Walesa would have agreed. So I plead not guilty to the charge
of identifying order and justice. Ditto to the charge that I am endorsing
a presumption for violence. As I thought I had made reasonably clear in my
article, the just war way of thinking about the moral exigencies of world politics
begins with a presumption for justice”a presumption that the magistrate has
the moral obligation to defend the common good, even at the risk of his
own life”and then proceeds to a moral analysis of the various means available
for securing justice, which can include proportionate and discriminate armed
Darrin Belouseks letter reminds me of a mot attributed to the late
John Courtney Murray, S.J.: If the end doesnt justify the means, what does?
Mr. Belousek does, however, take us close to the theological heart of the matter,
which is indeed one of eschatology. He tells me that I misunderstand pacifism;
from my point of view, what I think I understand is that pacifists misunderstand
their relationship to the coming Pax Christi. That will be Christs work, not
ours, established in Christs time, not ours; and because of the very nature
of the Pax Christi, which will be the consummation of Christs salvific work
in the final establishment of a Kingdom that is by definition beyond history,
no work of politics (including nonviolent politics) will advance the establishment
of the Pax Christi by one millisecond. Between now and then, the task is not
to establish Pax Romana, but . . . tranquillitas ordinis , to go back
to the beginning (in several senses of the phrase).
David Novak wonders how a Jew like me can teach at a Christian divinity
school in light of my opposition to the dialogue of the two communities and
my belief that their relationship necessarily involves mutual repugnance ( Instinctive
Repugnance , May). Let me assure the readers of First Things that my involvement
in Jewish-Christian dialogue (which began when I was a teenager) and my commitment
to it remain alive and well. Professor Novaks error lies in assuming that because
I reject Dabru Emet : A Jewish Statement on Christians and Christianity
(which he coauthored), I must reject the dialogue tout court. Nothing in my
critique of the statement provides the slightest support for his assumption.
As for his equally unfounded claim that I believe the relationship of Judaism
and Christianity to be necessarily one of mutual repugnance, Prof. Novak
does attempt to provide textual support. In doing so, however, he doctors my
words in a way that inverts their plain and unambiguous meaning. Here is his
alleged quotation, exactly as he gives it, brackets and all:
One need hardly be an advocate of interfaith hostility to observe
[that] the two communities . . . feel an instinctive repugnance toward each
This must be compared with the passage in which I actually used the term instinctive
One need hardly be an advocate of interfaith hostility to observe
that two communities that feel an instinctive repugnance toward each other are
unlikely to form an amalgam, whether through acculturation or intermarriage.
By the same token, communities that have largely overcome their animosity and
moved to mutual respect, as Jews and Christians have done to a significant extent
in the United States, must look elsewhere for such reinforcements to group identity
as existed under the older and more contentious arrangement. Under any conditions,
the risks are higher for the smaller community”that is, the Jews. They are especially
high if Jews and Christians really do stand in the relationship described by
Dabru Emet .
Prof. Novaks mischief goes further than his obvious insertion of a definite
article and his employment of a tendentiously misleading ellipsis. The passage
from which he has lifted the term instinctive repugnance makes it crystal
clear that the attitude in question is largely a thing of the past, having been
replaced by mutual respect. If Prof. Novak had wanted to give a truthful account
of where I think things stand”and of my own personal attitude”he would have
quoted those two words as well. That he does not, instead distorting my real
words beyond recognition, should give pause to any honest reader.
I am hardly the eminent Jewish scholar that Prof. Novak calls me, but I
am alert enough to recognize when I have been misquoted, when my meaning has
been grossly and prejudicially misrepresented, and when the substantive issues
I have raised remain unaddressed.
Jon D. Levenson
Albert A. List Professor of
Harvard Divinity School
In his article Instinctive Repugnance, David Novak seizes upon and distorts
a single phrase, taken out of context, from Professor Jon D. Levensons extensive
and thoughtful critique of the interfaith document Dabru Emet (Speak
the Truth): A Jewish Statement on Christians and Christianity, in order to
launch an ad hominem assault on Prof. Levensons integrity, his attitude to
Christianity, and his suitability to be a professor at Harvards Divinity School.
Prof. Levenson was certainly not advocating mutual repugnance, or any hostility
for that matter, between Christians and Jews. He was merely pointing to an undeniable
historical reality about the deeply ingrained, almost instinctive, responses
of each group to the others religious rituals and core beliefs, that has largely
and thankfully become a thing of the past. This in the context of Levensons
very cogent and realistic critique of Dabru Emet s willful ignorance
of historical and theological realities that must frame any honest and fruitful
While it is fine, indeed healthy, for Judaic scholars to engage in a heated
exchange about the best way to approach interfaith dialogue, nothing can justify
Prof. Novaks truly repugnant accusation that, in not ascribing to Dabru
Emet , Prof. Levenson is somehow guilty of fostering self-hatred among
Christians, or his insulting suggestion that Levenson would be better off teaching
in an Orthodox yeshiva than at Harvard. It is not without irony that, in the
name of promoting an open dialogue between Christians and Jews, Prof. Novak
has displayed a imperious intolerance of genuine dialogue within the Jewish
The etiology of this imperiousness is not hard to find in Prof. Novaks article,
where he describes Dabru Emet as the first normative text for Jews dealing
with the new and better chapter in the relationship between our communities
dating from the 1965 statement, Nostra Aetate, of the Second Vatican
Council. It will no doubt disappoint Prof. Novak to learn that while the Torah,
Mishna, Talmud, and Codes of Rabbinic Law may fairly be described as normative
texts for Jews, his own writings in the pages of First Things do not quite
merit that august designation, even if endorsed by three other Jewish college
professors and later published as an advertisement in the New York Times .
Prof. Novaks analysis of the widespread Jewish opposition to Dabru Emet
is equally supercilious. With astonishing self-importance Prof. Novak writes:
As there is still Christian opposition to the Christian document of 1965, so
there is now Jewish opposition to Dabru Emet . In comparing the signatories
of Dabru Emet to the members of the Second Vatican Council, Prof. Novak
reflects not only an unwarranted sense of religious authority, he betrays the
false reasoning that rendered Dabru Emet such a deeply flawed document
in the first place. In point of fact, there is no Jewish equivalent to the Vatican,
just as there is no parity between Jewish and Christian attitudes toward the
The same flawed reasoning led the authors of Dabru Emet to obscure
the central theological differences between the two faiths, by asserting that
Jews and Christians worship the same God and find religious authority in
the same book. But, as all moderately educated Jews and Christians know, the
God of Israel does not incorporate Jesus of Nazareth or the Holy Spirit, and
the Tanakh (Hebrew Scriptures) does not include the New Testament. These are
not minor details; they are fundamental differences and only by confronting
them in the context of interreligious dialogue can we hope for an honest and
productive exchange. How strange it is that Prof. Novaks polemic against dealing
openly and honestly about the differences that separate believing Jews and Christians
was published in the same issue of First Things as Richard John Neuhaus admirably
candid reflections on the Jews.
At the very core of Prof. Levensons critique of Dabru Emet was the
fact that this Jewish Statement on Christians and Christianity imagines that,
in their historic theological attitudes toward each other, there is somehow
a balanced dialectical relationship between Christianity and Judaism. In challenging
that misconstruction of Jewish history and theology, along with several
other deeply problematic aspects of Dabru Emet , Prof. Levenson did a
great service to furthering open discussion on a topic that is far from resolved
in the minds of most rabbis and Jewish thinkers, Prof. Novaks normative text
for Jews notwithstanding. That Prof. Novak and his coauthors chose to lower
the level of discourse not only in First Things but in their strident letter
in the April 2002 issue of Commentary , in which they dismiss the
possibility of dialogue with Prof. Levenson in his present state of mind,
is most lamentable.
Rabbi Dr. Allan Nadler
Department of Religious Studies
Director, Jewish Studies Program
Madison, New Jersey
I was surprised and dismayed at Professor David Novaks misrepresentation
of Prof. Jon D. Levensons reference to the instinctive repugnance between
the Jewish and the Christian communities in Prof. Levensons penetrating and
incisive critique of the Dabru Emet document. Based upon his obvious
(and deliberate?) misconstrual of Prof. Levensons remarks, Prof. Novak proceeds
to challenge the integrity of Prof. Levensons teaching Christian students at
Harvard Divinity School.
As is evident from Prof. Levensons full (rather than selectively edited)
comments, he was referring to the instinctive repugnances of the past, which,
at least in the United States, have, over the past few decades, been significantly
overcome. The point Prof. Levenson was making was that precisely because of
the increased mutual tolerance and respect between Jews and Christians, and
between theologians of Judaism and of Christianity, it is important for Jews
who want to preserve Jewish identity, Jewish religiosity, and Jewish continuity
(as I know that both Prof. Novak and Prof. Levenson do) that the fundamental
theological distinctions between Judaism and Christianity not be blurred or
glossed over, since such blurring can contribute to the phenomenon of Jewish
intermarriage and loss of meaningful Jewish identity. This practical argument
against the blurring of theological distinctions, which is what Dabru Emet
does, is in addition to the basic argument for intellectual and theological
honesty and integrity, especially (but not only) when engaging in mutually respectful
interreligious discourse. I assume that one of the reasons why students of all
faiths flock to Prof. Levensons courses at Harvard Divinity School is because
in addition to appreciating his erudition and brilliance, they respect his intellectual
Prof. Levenson notes that, among other differences between traditional Judaism
and Christianity ignored by Dabru Emet , Jewish adherents of Judaism do
not consider the New Testament to be their sacred scripture, do not believe
that Jesus was either Messiah or God, do not believe in a Trinitarian God, and
do not believe that Christianity either supersedes or fulfills Judaism. It would
have been much more productive for Prof. Novak to have responded intelligently
and directly to these points than for him to falsely attribute to Prof. Levenson
the exact opposite of what he actually wrote.
Professor of Jewish Education and
In his comments on Professor Jon D. Levensons article How Not to Conduct
Jewish-Christian Dialogue, Prof. David Novak remarks that Why Prof. Levenson
teaches mostly Christian students in a Christian divinity school is a question
he needs to answer, even if only to his Christian students and colleagues at
As one of those students, I can only say that during the
years before I came to the Divinity School, in which I attended a convent of
the Sacred Heart and a Jesuit university, I never heard any professor give a
thorough and thoughtful explanation of such doctrines as that of the Real Presence
in the Eucharist, or criticize the rampant and inane anti-Catholicism in secular
academe. Prof. Levenson has done so consistently. He has been not only respectful
but generous in his treatment of Christianity. The respect with which he has
treated Christianity demands that he tell the truth about Jewish-Christian dialogue.
Parts of that truth are distinctly unpalatable. In seeking to Speak the Truth
we must first be willing to listen to it. It is to the truth in all of its fullness
that we must subject our consciences if we are to be chastened and ultimately
renewed by it. Prof. Novak owes not only Prof. Levenson but also the latters
Christian students an unqualified apology.
David Novak replies:
Of course Professor Levenson is right that his remark about instinctive
repugnance was specifically employed when speaking about what he claims has
been overcome and largely replaced by mutual respect. Nonetheless, since
he objects to even our assertion of the partial commonality between Judaism
and Christianity, how could that instinctive repugnance possibly be overcome?
Since Judaism and Christianity clearly have much historical overlapping, and
since Prof. Levenson sees that overlapping to be so negative, what else is left
except a continuation of that instinctive repugnance? Our historical overlapping
makes the only other alternative”indifference”impossible to sustain. Surely,
the relation of Christianity to Judaism is different in kind from, let us say,
the relation of Hinduism to Judaism. That is why I so emphasized that striking
phrase. It is the leitmotif of his whole article, including his repugnance for
the very idea of Dabru Emet as proposed by Jews. His condemnatory article
in Commentary , unfortunately, did not invite a dialogical response.
Rabbi Nadlers anger is even harsher than that of Prof. Levenson. But let
me address at least one of his intellectual points. He confuses my use of the
word normative and effectively equates it with authority. Whereas all authoritative
texts are normative, not all normative texts are authoritative. A theological
text like Dabru Emet is normative because it advocates what Jews ought
to affirm about Christianity. It is not authoritative like the Bible and
the Talmud because no one can or should quote it as a statement that makes a
prima facie claim on its hearers. In other words, unlike the authoritative statements
in the Bible and the Talmud, Dabru Emet s statements require argumentation
before one is either persuaded or dissuaded by them. It is theology, not revelation.
It thus calls for either acceptance or a theological alternative. It is to be
hoped that Prof. Levenson, being as theologically oriented as he is, will provide
the latter at some future time. Then there will be a true inter-Jewish dialogue
In response to Prof. Schimmel, and also back to Prof. Levenson, if the preservation
of Jewish identity requires that we always have to react against a negative
other, then that diverts us from asserting the universal significance of the
whole Jewish tradition. We Jews should be strengthened in our identity by appreciating
how much our Torah and tradition have partially influenced Christianity,
and that many Christians now at long last appreciate that influence, and even
want more of it. But one cannot influence someone with whom one has nothing
positive in common.
As for Suzanne Smiths defense of her teacher, I am very happy to hear how
much some of Prof. Levensons Christian students appreciate his scholarship
and pedagogy, which I appreciate as well. Indeed, that explains much of my keen
disappointment in his Commentary attack on Dabru Emet . However,
Ms. Smith might ask Prof. Levenson how the respect with which he has treated
Christianity is consistent with his negative article about Christianitys relation
to Judaism”at least in that article”and his even more negative attitude towards
a group of his fellow Jews who are more hopeful about a better relation between
our two communities, a relation that is theologically true and not just politically
useful. Hence, no apology is required for a response in kind to Prof. Levensons
attack on both Dabru Emet and its authors, who, as he concludes, are
whistling in the dark. Ms. Smith should learn from our exchange what a passionate
people we Jews are.
James Nuechterleins comments ( Let
Us Pray , April) on the September 23 Yankee Stadium affair are reminiscent
of many other defenses of the event and of Lutheran participation”long on
personal feelings and cultural sensitivities, short on theology and biblical
understanding. If, in his initial paragraph, by calling the LCMS sectarian
Mr. Nuechterlein meant to disparage its theologically conservative position,
he has succeeded only in name calling.
Viewing the Yankee Stadium prayer service twice and reading Dr. David Benkes
extensive explanation and defense of his participation have been instructive.
Yet, I respectfully register my disagreement with his defense and with Mr. Nuechterleins
characterization of the event. No explanation can deny the (pan)religious character
of the affair”from the sincere petitions of the rabbis to the wailing of the
imams to the broken English of the Orthodox priest. The service included spiritual
songs and mini-homilies as well as prayers”not a full-blown worship service,
but religious enough to make it more than merely a civic response to a tragic
event. Pastor Benke himself referred to the venue as a house of prayer.
There are also those who embrace the Madison Avenue cliché, Any (all) publicity
is good publicity. Having a Lutheran rep at such events, even in a less than
ideal context, instills in attendees and viewers appropriate positive feelings.
And it makes Lutherans feel good about themselves: Look, one of us! I suspect
that such sentiment accounts for much of the theologically naive approval of
Dr. Benkes participation within LCMS circles, but it distracts us from the
real issues, from the life or death question which we must finally face: How
does a Christian presence distinguish itself from the false gods at such an
event? For if that distinction is not made, and made clearly and unmistakably,
the witness to the non-Christian is ambiguous and uncertain at best, false at
Attempts to redefine syncretism to suit twenty-first-century postmodern sensibilities
are futile. In a few short decades we have moved from a nominally Christian
public square to one that is increasingly multi-religious, even pagan, and St.
Pauls warning against blending in with worshipers of idols is more relevant
than ever. Indeed, we need to adjust”not, however, in the direction that Yankee
Stadium, September 23, would lead us, but in the direction that Gods Word leads
I was disappointed by James Nuechterleins essay on the controversy among
Missouri Synod Lutherans over Pastor David Benkes prayer in Yankee Stadium.
Mr. Nuechterleins rhetoric, labeling orthodox critics of Benke as ultraconservatives
with a sectarian mentality and a blinkered preoccupation with unionism,
sounded much more like the kind of orthodoxy-bashing one has come to expect
from the mainstream media than the thoughtful commentary typical of First Things
in general and Mr. Nuechterleins work in particular.
Mr. Nuechterlein sounds uncomfortably like those who attacked Joseph Cardinal
Ratzinger for being intolerant of other religions when he affirmed the unique
fullness of the Christian revelation in Dominus Iesus As Ratzinger wrote,
The Churchs constant missionary proclamation is endangered today by relativistic
theories which seek to justify religious pluralism, not only de facto but also
de iure (or in principle). Critics of Pastor Benke like myself believe that
his prayer gave aid and succor to just such religious relativism and syncretism.
Mr. Nuechterlein misses entirely what is at issue in the disputes over the
Benke prayer. The concern is not whether Dr. Benke should have taken part”nearly
everyone agrees that it was fully appropriate for him to use this opportunity
to minister to believers and to proclaim the gospel”nor over the kitschy character
of the Oprahfest. The controversy has been sparked by what Pastor Benke actually
said in his prayer”and here Mr. Nuechterlein does a disservice to his readers
by failing to provide a single bit of information about the content of Dr. Benkes
prayer. To make a prayer Christian, more is required than attaching the phrase,
In the precious name of Jesus, Amen. The actual content of the prayer should
clearly enunciate the hope that we have in the saving work of Christ alone.
Here is an unfortunately representative paragraph of the woolly language Pastor
Benke chose to use:
Oh, were stronger now than we were an hour ago. And you know, my
sisters and brothers, were not nearly as strong as were going to be. And the
strength we have is the strength of love. And the power of love you have received
from God, for God is love. So take the hand of the one next to you now and join
me in prayer on this field of dreams turned into Gods house of prayer.
In Pastor Benkes actual prayer (as opposed to the written text from which
he departed), he made no mention of Jesus (except in the closing phrase), nor
of the significance of Christs life, death, and resurrection as the unique
expression of Gods love, nor of the need for repentance and faith in Christ
as means of grace. Benke made no effort to distinguish the Christian faith from
the rest of the smorgasbord of spiritualities offered to the audience at Yankee
Stadium. One doesnt have to be blinkered by a sectarian mentality to be worried
that yet another major Protestant denomination may be lost to the relativistic
Robert C. Koons
Department of Philosophy
University of Texas at Austin
James Nuechterlein portrays the debate within the Lutheran Church-Missouri
Synod as a political dispute: this is a struggle for power between moderates
and entrenched hard-line ultraconservatives. A political framework serves
his opinion well, because politics allows the debate to be conducted on a subjective
plane. I suggest, however, that framing the discussion in this manner fails
to portray accurately the situation inside of Missouri. Those nasty hard-liners
are so hard-line and ultraconservative because this is a theological crisis
in which the objective truth of the gospel is at stake. Those beleaguered moderates
are beleaguered because their argument on the matter is reduced to politics;
and a purely political matter is, de facto, not a matter of right and wrong,
but of differing opinion.
This leads us back to the moderate assertion that the service was not syncretistic
because the clerics gathered to express moral, not theological, agreement. In
that case, syncretism is defined by subjective intent, not objective action.
Objectively, however, syncretism is a service in which various religions invoke,
pray to, and worship a variety of gods, spirits, or forces. The intent doesnt
matter; the action does. At Yankee Stadium, a worship service took place that
involved prayers, invocations, readings, and homilies by Jews, Muslims, Hindus,
and others. If this is not an example of syncretism, what is?
(The Rev.) Tim Pauls
Good Shepherd Lutheran Church
In his column about the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod and its controversy
over a pastor praying publicly at Yankee Stadium with non-Christians, James
Nuechterlein quotes me as having sympathy for the LCMS conservatives who are
trying to censure Pastor David Benke. A clarification is in order. As a non-Lutheran
observer, I personally believe that the anti-Benke camp within the LCMS is overreacting,
and that what Dr. Benke did was fine. I did not mention that in my piece. However,
with the LCMS conservatives taking such a beating over this issue, I thought
it fair and necessary to say they are asking the right questions about religious
identity and the limits of ecumenism, even if one might disagree with their
answer. I wrote that as a Roman Catholic convert stunned and dismayed by the
Holy Fathers inclusion of African shamans in his peace summit in Assisi earlier
this year. The priest who first did my instruction in the faith was once a missionary
in Africa, and told me terrifying stories of having to do spiritual battle as
an exorcist with the same sort of religious leaders the pontiff was now welcoming
as his honored guests. Hence my concern.
Brooklyn, New York
James Nuechterlein replies:
For the record, I am in favor neither of syncretism nor relativism,
not to mention idol worship. What is at issue is whether David Benke is guilty
of any of these failings because of his participation in the September 23, 2001
event at Yankee Stadium. I do not think he is. To pray in the presence of non-Christians
is not the same thing as praying with them. This was not a service of worship
in the Lutheran understanding of that term. I agree that Pastor Benkes prayer
could have been improved upon as a Christian witness (he has, I believe, indicated
as much himself), but I do not see how any non-blinkered observer of the event
could see his participation in it as either a threat to or denial of the gospel.
For the most part, Avery Cardinal
Dulles review (April) engages the ideas laid out in Passionate Uncertainty
by Eugene C. Bianchi and me rather than bottom-feeding off the methodological
flaws that reviewers in America and Commonweal claim to have found.
After commenting on a few of these technical matters, I want to concentrate
on the meat of his remarks.
There are at least two signs that our selection of Jesuits and former Jesuits
is representative. The geographic and age distributions of the men who took
part in the study closely match what is known about these populations. Second,
when we compute correlations between, for example, the period of entry into
the Society and the social origins of the men, we find that Depression-era entrants
came from lower class origins than those who have joined up later. No surprise
here, and thats the point. If anything else emerged from the exercise, we would
have reason to doubt the validity of the data.
The real difficulty may lie not with our statistical analysis but with our
interpretation of the discursive responses supplied by the men. We supplemented
the qualitative statements with quantitative measures”with ten-point scales
of the sort How satisfied (10) or dissatisfied (1) are you with the direction
the Society of Jesus has taken in the past few years? We have enough measures
of this sort to compare Jesuits and former Jesuits along several dimensions”satisfaction
with the Societys performance, with the leadership of the Church, with their
own work, etc. The quantitative measures enable us to calculate how, for example,
satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the sexual magisterium ties in with satisfaction
or dissatisfaction with the institutional Church.
The essential task is to see how Jesuits and former Jesuits tie things together,
for it is on these cognitive and emotional patterns that religious cultures
and organizational habits are built. One such connection is the bond between
attitudes toward what one Jesuit calls pelvic theology and attitudes toward
institutional authority. Beliefs about the sexual magisterium are bundled with
opinions about adherence to hierarchical Catholicism, notably in the requirement
of celibacy for priestly ordination.
These connections matter because they condition (though they do not determine)
the recommendations for change that readers draw from the study. Consider a
mental experiment common in political science. Markets are fundamental to democracy.
Without markets, you definitely will not find democracy. With markets, you may
find democracy. But alongside markets you may also find developmental dictatorships
of the sort that flourished in places like Brazil, Spain, South Korea, and Taiwan
a few decades ago. Markets are therefore a necessary but not a sufficient condition
There is no exactly comparable precondition for hierarchy in religious organizations.
But one comes very close, and this is the cluster of doctrines falling under
pelvic theology. By specifying male gender and celibacy as prerequisites for
holy orders, canon law makes these properties necessary, though hardly sufficient,
conditions for priesthood. Dispense with these rules and the traditional hierarchy
The logic linking celibacy to hierarchy is at the heart of Cardinal Dulles
strategy”tightening up the ship”for remedying the current crisis. His views
cannot be dismissed as wishful thinking, given what we know about the fate of
some religious orders that have liberalized themselves into extinction. Still,
different recommendations can be drawn from the same evidence. The radical one
supposes that tightening the ship is a lost cause requiring a futile exercise
in surveillance; it also perpetuates an exclusionary hierarchy.
In large measure distinct from fractures in the sexual magisterium, the rise
of lay people in positions of ministerial responsibility widens the gap between
the apostolic apparatus of Catholicism”schools, retreat houses, even parishes”and
its authority structure. Here the problem is less one of doctrine than of doubts
about the relevance of a clerical presence in organizations that lay people
manage pretty much on their own. Most of their colleagues dont want to get
rid of Jesuits, nor do they covet holy orders for themselves. But many are perplexed
about what Jesuits are supposed to be doing and who they are. So are many Jesuits.
The reform agenda implicit in the rise-of-the-laity scenario differs, at least
partially, from the program behind the crisis-in-the-priesthood/sexuality drama.
Calls for consultation between clergy and laity and for accountability of ecclesiastical
incumbents are less threatening, because less foundational, than demands to
rethink inherited connections between priesthood, the sexual teachings of the
Church, and its structure of authority.=
Department of Political Science
Arizona State University
I read with interest Avery Cardinal Dulles review of Passionate Uncertainty
and although I have found the book helpful, I also very much appreciated the
Cardinals astute observations on the book and on the Society of Jesus. But
I think Cardinal Dulles oversimplifies when discussing what the Jesuit baby
boomers think about he Church and the Society: he correctly catches a mindset
shared by some early boomers already in the Society by the end of Vatican Council
II, but is less on target in seeming to describe in the same way the middle
boomers, those of us who entered in the late 1960s and 70s.
I entered the New York province in 1968, and by that time the Church, the
Society, and formation were already in great change, wildly varying opinions
were being loudly voiced, many Jesuits were experimenting, and many were leaving.
We werent expecting a revolution, but we had to figure out how to survive and
make sense of religious life, drawing on widely conflicting advice from older
Jesuits who were arguing among themselves. Whatever our theological leanings,
we learned first of all to be individualists in order to survive. If late boomers
and possibly Generation X Jesuits are, as Cardinal Dulles suggests, different
again, it may be simply that the Society and the culture have settled down considerably
and young men are able to make clearer choices about whether to enter the Society
or respond to Gods call in other ways.
Francis X. Clooney, S.J.
Professor of Theology
In many respects Avery Cardinal Dulles review of Passionate Uncertainty
seems more like an article giving the Cardinals view of the Jesuits, and I
will address it as such.
The Cardinal tells us that the Society has an exciting history and that
its story exists in the authentic heritage established by St. Ignatius Loyola.
It is indelibly inscribed in the Spiritual Exercises and the Constitutions
and the authentic documents leave no room for the Society to be a church within
the Church. No one would dispute that the heritage of the Jesuits is one of
saints, martyrs, and a long, distinguished record of collaborating with the
Holy See. However, that was then, this is now.
Cardinal Dulles says that the works of the Jesuit order are prospering because
its universities have larger enrollments and more academic prestige than ever
before. No doubt this is true. But the Cardinal makes no claim that these same
universities are authentically Catholic, providing authentic Catholic teaching.
In fact, the Jesuit universities were in the forefront of those opposing Ex
Corde Ecclesiae, the Popes attempt to require them to provide Catholic
teaching. They are still in opposition. As an editorial in the Catholic World
Report (April 2002) says, The leadership of the Jesuit order is working
actively against the implementation of the Popes directives. I am reminded
of Bishop Fulton J. Sheens statement in the 1970s, I recommend to all my friends
and relatives that they send their children to secular colleges and universities
where they will be forced to defend their faith, rather than to Catholic ones,
where their faith will be taken from them. I am a graduate of a local Jesuit
university. If any of my sons had wished to go there, I would have done all
that I could to discourage them.
Lets turn our attention for a moment to the elephant in the living room,
or should I say the alleged elephant, since Cardinal Dulles refers to the
alleged increase of homosexual tendencies among younger members in the Society
of Jesus as well as in other religious orders and diocesan seminaries. In the
November 2000 issue of the Catholic World Report , Father Paul
Shaughnessy, S.J., wrote a hard-hitting article titled The Gay Priest Problem.
Although Cardinal Dulles says that a new generation of seminarians and religious
is arising, and that it consists of young men eager to retrieve the tradition
of former centuries and to serve the hierarchical Church, Fr. Shaughnessy notes
that the U.S. Jesuits recently approved guidelines for admitting novices that
include this characteristic of the ideal candidate: He has the ability to identify
and accept his own sexual orientation and to live comfortably with people of
different sexual orientations. Fr. Shaughnessy argues that this approach will
steadily increase the number of gays in the clergy, and that, quite simply,
those entrusted to fix what is broken are broken themselves.
In California, the same Jesuit Provincial, Fr. Smolich, who has effectively
exiled Fr. Joseph Fessio, the founder of the St. Ignatius Institute, was reported
by the Los Angeles Times (March 24, 2002) to have covered up the sexual
abuse of two retarded dishwashers by a number of Jesuits at their Los Gatos
When I graduated from Xavier University in 1964 I was commissioned an officer
in the United States Marine Corps. At that time it was easy to make the comparison
that the Jesuits were the Marine Corps of the Church. Can anyone conceive of
that comparison being made today?
Cardinal Dulles concludes his review with the comment that, for some of us,
life in the Jesuits is more challenging and more congenial. Well, more congenial
it may be, but I would have more admiration for the Cardinal if he would use
his considerable prestige to speak out about those who have done so much to
damage the Jesuits, and to speak up for those faithful Jesuits who have been
treated so shabbily by those in authority.
Cold Spring, Kentucky
Avery Cardinal Dulles replies:
I have no difficulty in accepting Father Clooneys description of himself
as a member of the second wave of the baby boomer generation. His letter confirms
the fact that in the early 1970s there was wild experimentation and confusion
in the Society of Jesus as well as elsewhere in the Church. He acknowledges,
I think, that much of the experimentation has proved to be misguided and that
younger Jesuits today seem to have a more settled outlook.
As a former naval officer I can understand Allan Smileys eagerness to see
the Jesuits become the Marine Corps of the Church. But that would be a caricature
of the view of St. Ignatius, who wanted men capable of personal discernment
and responsible decision. Jesuits have never marched lockstep like soldiers
on parade. While bound together by a common faith and aspiration, they seek
to develop their personal gifts in the service of Christ and the Church. They
can disagree about strategies and sometimes do.
Mr. Smiley falls into the rather unhelpful habit of praising an idealized
past and lamenting a demonized present. He gives a slanted picture of current
trends. The Jesuits of my acquaintance are uniformly enthusiastic about Ex
Corde Ecclesiae . Several of them contributed in important ways to the drafting
of that admirable document. Some Jesuits in the universities, like other university
people, have had reservations about one or more of the general norms appended
to that Apostolic Constitution, for example, the mandatum . But many bishops
shared the same concerns. From the tone of his letter I suspect that Mr. Smiley
would not be likely to see the complexities involved.
Mr. Smiley urges me to speak out against those whose actions he deplores.
Too many people, I believe, are speaking out on issues that they do not fully
understand, thereby compounding the confusion. Before reaching a judgment about
matters in California I would have to listen to all parties in the dispute,
not just to one side. On the matter of speaking out we would all do well to
listen to the sage counsel of St. Ignatius:
We should be more ready to approve and praise the orders, recommendations,
and way of acting of our superiors than to find fault with them. Though some
of the orders, etc., may not have been praiseworthy, yet to speak against them,
either when preaching in public or in speaking before the people, would rather
be the cause of murmuring and scandal than of profit. As a consequence, the
people would become angry with their superiors, whether secular or spiritual.
But while it does harm in the absence of our superiors to speak evil of them
before the people, it may be profitable to discuss their bad conduct with those
who can supply a remedy.
The Provincial of the Jesuits in California is not exactly my superior, but
I would not wish to interfere with his government unasked. As a quintessential
New Yorker, I would have difficulty understanding what goes on in California.
Peter McDonough is correct in judging that, unlike some other reviewers, I
did not choose to dwell extensively on the methodological flaws of Passionate
Uncertainty . Professor McDonoughs strained efforts to defend the methodology
are a showcase example of the kind of jargon that makes the book difficult to
Prof. McDonoughs letter also reveals with startling clarity that the real
intent of the authors is to attack the hierarchical structure of the Church
and its traditions regarding priesthood. He accuses me of seeking to tighten
the ship. But in face of the present scandals about sexual misconduct in the
ranks of the clergy, there is no room for laxity. If the teaching of the hierarchical
Church on sexual ethics and priestly conduct had been followed, the scandals
would not have arisen.
The Jesuits of the early years were known as preti reformati . Not all
Jesuits today would qualify for that designation. But in this respect as in
others, St. Ignatius and his first companions can continue to inspire their
loyal followers, upon whose shoulders rests the future of the Jesuit order.
That the American bishops in the last thirty years have generally
offered few creative contributions to economic issues, as William McGurn observes
( The Preacher and the Economist ,
April), is true. They have not offered ideas; rather they remain in a very dated
liberal, statist view concerning economic problems and injustice, following
the line of thinking of the late John A. Ryan, The Right Reverend New Dealer.
Yet, on the other hand, neither have Mr. McGurn and Wall Street offered, or
allowed, pace Milton Friedman, any creative ways or thinking to address the
glaring and cruel gap in wealth between the few and the many throughout the
world. Laissez-faire capitalism is simply that. Those who have get more, those
who have a lot, get a lot more, and yes, slowly, ever so slowly, those powerless
and without ownership occasionally may get a chance to participate.
There are presently three billion people in the world who live on less than
two dollars a day. In the U.S., according to a Congressional Budget Office memorandum
(May 1998), the top-earning one percent of Americans have as much combined income
as the 100 million citizens with the lowest income. The fact is that globalization
is controlled and directed by those who have this concentrated wealth. Both
in Laborem Excercens (1981) and Centesimus Annus (1991), Pope
John Paul II has explicitly criticized what he terms rigid or extreme capitalism.
Some forty years ago, Hannah Arendt, in her Crises of the Republic ,
wrote: Our problem today is not how to expropriate the expropriators, but,
rather, how to arrange matters so that the masses dispossessed by industrial
society in capitalist and socialist systems can regain property”in other words,
in the twenty-first century, have access to capital.
The doctrine of the common good and the principle of subsidiarity of Catholic
social teaching require as much. Under current structures, monetary and otherwise,
these teachings are being violated. Free markets and competition are good. Rigid
capitalism is not, however, free. Economic and political freedom require ownership,
that is, access to capital. John Paul II and Catholic social teaching recognize
Laissez-faire capitalism inhibits this freedom, this ability to participate,
from below. Robert McNamara, capitalist par excellence and former head of the
World Bank, smugly rejected development from below, maintaining in Poland, for
example, after the fall of communism, that only corporate executives knew how
to use money and to invest. This was in direct contradiction of the Catholic
principles of the Solidarity Movement, the movement that helped bring down the
Iron Curtain and end the Cold War. In the meantime, in the U.S., Enrons employees
have lost billions of dollars in their savings and investments.
Expanded ownership of capital would begin to rectify these injustices and
errors. It would neither require a violent revolution nor cause the plutocrat
capitalists to lose their money. In the U.S., Congress could enact laws requiring
the Federal Reserve to give credit to those who have no credit or assets. Presently,
those who already have capital get loans for more capital. Globally, the International
Monetary Fund, World Bank, and other organizations could make changes accordingly.
John Paul II in Centisimus Annus (§16) writes that the state must contribute
. . . by creating favorable conditions for the free exercise of economic activity.
In their book Binary Economics (1999), Robert Ashford and Rodney Shakespeare
of Syracuse University cogently present the economic viability of such a system.
Moreover, for nearly two decades under the leadership of Dr. Norman Kurland,
an economist and lawyer, the Center for Economic and Social Justice in Washington,
D.C., has advised businesses as well as governments on expanded capital ownership,
based on the ideas of Louis Kelso and Mortimer Adler (the latter a Thomist philosopher)
in their book The Capitalist Manifesto (1958).
Mr. McGurn and the American bishops, Be Not Afraid.
Geoffrey B. Gneuhs
New York, New York
William McGurn replies:
I do not presume to speak for Milton Friedman. But my best guess is that the
Nobel Prize-winning economist would have no problem in principle with the argument
that the way to help the poor would be to expand their ownership of, and access
to, capital. Unfortunately this one sensible notion comes wrapped up in so many
false assumptions and mischaracterizations that Im not surprised Mr. Gnuehs
cannot see that it is in fact the market that is already providing what he says
Let me suggest that part of the problem here is that his conception of capitalism
does not rise above caricature. In the first three paragraphs he cites laissez-faire
capitalism, rigid capitalism and extreme capitalism. Likewise he appears
earnestly oblivious to the irony of presenting Robert McNamara as the capitalist
par excellence, not least given the general disdain that most free market organs
and institutes have for both the World Bank and Mr. McNamaras tenure there.
Apropos Mr. Gnuehs suggestion that the Federal Reserve just issue credit”with
no test of credit-worthiness, it appears”it is worth recalling that this is
more or less what Mr. McNamara did a generation ago with all his development
loans, creating crushing debts that poor nations are still paying off today.
My experience is that much of the error here stems from a failure to make
a fundamental distinction between businessmen”and especially pro-business regimes
and arrangements, about which Adam Smith was energetically skeptical”and pro-market
regimes, which admittedly are far more rare. The difference is critical, because
it is often the nations business leaders who fight off trade and globalization
because they threaten a cozy status quo in which businessmen dont have t