Israel was redeemed from Egypt ( padah , Deuteronomy 7:8), and in various ways signified that redemption by redemption of firstborn animals (Exodus 13:13-15; 34:20).

Jeremiah too speaks of redemption (15:21) from the hand of the wicked and violent. He hopes for a new exodus, enacted not in the life of the nation but in his own personal life. The wicked of Jerusalem are a new Pharaoh, Jeremiah a new Moses and new Israel, rescued by Yahweh.

And so we come to the New Testament, in two registers: Jesus was “redeemed” from the violent, from the new Pharaohs of first-century Israel, by His resurrection, and His followers were likewise rescued from enemies. Deliverance from persecuting Jews and, later, Romans is also an exodus. And then, more deeply, Jesus redeems not just from wicked enemies but from the wicked one himself, the Satan, and also from the power of wickedness that enslaves sinners.

Articles by Peter J. Leithart

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