Ana Ruiz gives a detailed summary of the variety of sevens in ancient Egyptian religion and culture (The Spirit of Ancient Egypt ).

There were seven major deities, seven astral powers, seven planets, seven metals (gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, tin, lead) ruled by the planets. Spells used the number seven. The god Sekhmet was propiated by 7000 vessels of mandrake-laced beer. Ra had seven souls, and there were seven “Hathors,” musical sisters resembling the Greek Muses who also corresponded with the seven stars of the Pleides. Seven scorpions protected Auset.

Priests knew the seven secret vowels, and chanted them in the temples: “The vowels were considered to be the seven primary sounds from which all others evolved. They were also known as ‘spirits,’ or ‘breaths,’ and they were regarded as the divine component of words” (163). Was this still current when John write that Jesus, identified as Alpha and Omega, wrote that Jesus is the one with the seven Breaths of God?

Articles by Peter J. Leithart

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