Mindset Behind Romans 3:3

What kind of mindset would even raise the question Paul poses in Romans 3:3? On what basis would it follow that the APISTIA (unfaithfulness) of Israel would nullify the PISTIS THEOU, the faithfulness of God? This would follow only if God’s faithfulness to His promises, and His faithfulness to . . . . Continue Reading »

Romans 3:1-8

Romans 3:1-8 picks up on a number of themes and concerns that reach back to the first chapter of the letter, especially the crucial verses in 1:16ff. Although unrighteousness (ADIKIA) has been a topic in chapter 2, the contrast between the ADIKIA of man (and of Jews in particular) and the . . . . Continue Reading »

Where Is Boasting?

Simon Gathercole’s Where Is Boasting has some stimulating insights into the argument of Romans 2, and some important objections to the NPP. The following notes are based on Gathercole: 1) It is clear that in Romans 2, Paul considers this Jew to be unrepentant and an apostate from Judaism. It . . . . Continue Reading »

Psalm 51 in Romans 3:4

Some interesting things going on in Paul’s quotation from Psalm 51 in Romans 3:4: 1) The surface significance is pretty clear. Earlier in the chapter, Paul has raised the question about how the PISTIS of God can be manifest if “some” in Israel have been APISTIA, so unfaithful to . . . . Continue Reading »

Chiasm in Romans 3:19-31

There’s something chiastic going on in 3:19-31 (or maybe 2:25-3:30). A. by works of law no flesh shall be justified, 19-20 B. Apart from law, righteousness of God is revealed, 21 C. righteousness through faith in Jesus—> for all have sinned, 22-23 D. being justified as a gift through . . . . Continue Reading »

Additional Thoughts on Romans 2

A few additional thoughts on Romans 2: 1) As Dunn points out, Paul is clearly lining out a series of oppositions in the latter part of this chapter, much as he does in Galatians: manifest ?Enot Jew ?Emanifest circumcision ?Eflesh ?E gramma /letter ?Epraise from man hidden ?EJew ?Ecircumcision . . . . Continue Reading »

Romans 2:24

In Romans 2:24, Paul cites Isaiah 52:5 and/or Ezekiel 36:20-23 to describe Israel’s effect on the nations. Israel was called to be a light to the world, to be a priest to the nations, and to cause Yahweh’s name to be honored among the Gentiles. Torah, and all the privileges associated . . . . Continue Reading »

“Day of Wrath” in Romans 2:5

“Day of wrath” in Romans 2:5: This is universally (so far as I know) taken as a reference to the final day of judgment. But a) is there any other passage in Scripture that uses this phrase to refer to the final judgment? and b) is the final day of judgment accurately described as a . . . . Continue Reading »

“Justified” in Rom 2:13

“Justified” in Rom 2:13 (the first use in Romans) is clearly contrasted with “perish” and “judged by Law.” The structure of vv 12-13 is poetic parallelism: whoever without law sins without law also perishes whoever in law sins through law will be judged not the . . . . Continue Reading »