Final Cause

Modernity is marked by the reduction of causes to efficient causes, and the elimination of final causation, of teleology or purpose.Final causes are not so easily eliminated, Hart argues (The . . . . Continue Reading »

Being Present

“Presence” has been subjected to withering attacks for decades, but Antonio Lopez ( Gift and the Unity of Being , 23-8) wants to rescue it. In his description, though, presence is . . . . Continue Reading »


In an address on the tercentenary of the Augsburg Confession, Hegel celebrated the freedom that the Lutheran Reformation brought, a freedom that healed the schism that divided the soul and the split . . . . Continue Reading »