In the November issue of First Things , Abdullah Saeed explains why a close reading of the Quran and the Prophet leads to supporting religious tolerance :
The words of the Quran and hadith contain rich resources for supporting the democratic order. If Muslims are to embrace modernity, including life in a pluralistic, democratic society, without abandoning their faith, they must take up the argument for religious liberty that is embedded in their history and that stands at the center of their most sacred texts.
Although the broad thrust of the Quran and hadith supports religious liberty, many parts of these texts can be, and traditionally have been, interpreted as denying it. One example is a quranic verse that deals with the question of the jizyah , a tax on non-Muslims: Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued (Q 9:29). The Prophet reportedly sometimes demands the death penalty for apostasy, the most obvious example of this being the hadith Whoever changes his religion, kill him (Bukhari, Sahih , 9, 84, hadith 57).