For those who are interested, the European University Institute in Florence has just published my essay, Defining Religion in American Law: Psychic Sophie and the Rise of the Nones. In the essay, I discuss the reasons why so many Americans today reject organized religion in favor of personal spirituality and ask whether the changing religious landscape will pose difficulties for American law. Does religion mean a community of believers or just one?
Here’s the abstract:
The most important recent development in American religion is the dramatic increase in the number of people who claim no religious affiliation - the rise of the Nones. In this Working Paper, I discuss the social factors that explain the rise of the Nones - demography, politics, family, technology, a distrust of institutions generally - and explain what this development might mean for the definition of religion in American law. I focus on a recent federal appeals court case involving a self-styled spiritual adviser, “Psychic Sophie,” who claimed that following her “inner flow” constituted a religion meriting constitutional and statutory protection. I argue that the case is a close one. Protecting Nones as a religion would promote the important goals of state religious neutrality and personal autonomy. On the other hand, religion has always been understood in terms of community. Indeed, as Tocqueville saw, it is precisely religion’s communal aspect that makes it so important to liberal democracy. Granting Nones the status of a religion would fail to capture this important social benefit.
You can download the paper here.